Subscribe to the iGaming newsletter Casino & games SG Digital brings in new CFO from Playtech Tags: Mobile Online Gambling Alexander Ambrose will boost company’s US ‘transformation’ Email Address Topics: Casino & games Finance People Sports betting Strategy Alexander Ambrose has been charged with helping lead SG Digital’s US expansion plans after being appointed chief financial officer of the Scientific Games division. Ambrose joins the company having most recently served as UK finance director at Playtech. Earlier in his career, Ambrose also had a spell as finance director at Ash Gaming. In his new role, Ambrose will focus on SG Digital’s US growth efforts. Scientific is one of several companies to have upped its activities in the country in response to the Supreme Court ruling on PASPA.SG Digital was formed earlier this year after the merging of Scientific Games’ existing digital division with NYX Gaming, following the CAD$775m (€519.6m/US$626.5m) acquisition of the latter. Speaking about Ambrose’s appointment, Jason Walbridge, chief operating officer at SG Digital, said: “Alex is the perfect addition to our team as we level up our product portfolio and continue the rapid transformation of our sportsbook business to meet the needs of our growing US customer base. “As a finance leader with strong industry expertise, he has extensive experience leading finance teams in a multi-product environment.” In August, Scientific revealed that its SG Digital business is powering sports betting services at the Caesars-owned Horseshoe Tunica Hotel & Casino and Harrah’s Gulf Coast Hotel & Casino in Mississippi. Scientific is also working with Caesars on sports wagering in New Jersey, while the company plans to launch with Kindred Group in the state before the end of the year. Kindred will utilise SG Digital’s Open Platform System and Open Gaming System.Ambrose will be based in SG Digital’s London office in the UK and report directly to Michael Quartieri, executive vice-president and chief financial officer of Scientific Games.Quartieri said: “We are thrilled to have Alex join SG Digital and our global finance team. His in-depth financial experience in iGaming will enable him to drive operational excellence, execute best practices and position us for growth in our iGaming and sportsbook businesses.” 4th October 2018 | By contenteditor AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitter
Image source: Getty Images. 5 Stocks For Trying To Build Wealth After 50 Manika Premsingh | Wednesday, 18th November, 2020 | More on: LLOY Our 6 ‘Best Buys Now’ Shares Simply click below to discover how you can take advantage of this. Enter Your Email Address I would like to receive emails from you about product information and offers from The Fool and its business partners. Each of these emails will provide a link to unsubscribe from future emails. More information about how The Fool collects, stores, and handles personal data is available in its Privacy Statement. Manika Premsingh owns shares of easyJet. The Motley Fool UK has recommended Lloyds Banking Group. Views expressed on the companies mentioned in this article are those of the writer and therefore may differ from the official recommendations we make in our subscription services such as Share Advisor, Hidden Winners and Pro. Here at The Motley Fool we believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. Fortunes finally appear to be smiling on Lloyds Bank (LSE: LLOY). At least they are smiling on the Lloyds Bank share price, which has stayed above the 30p level since November 9. No surprises here. The FTSE 100 index also started rallying on the day, on hopes of a successful coronavirus vaccine. It crossed 6,000 and has stayed above those levels since, too. I expect that if the collective investor mood continues to remain buoyant, so will the Lloyds Bank share price. 2020 has been particularly destabilising for LLOY. Like all banking stocks, it thrives during boom years and vice versa. However, if the pandemic finally ends in the coming months and the economy gets back on track, things could turn a corner for the bank. ‘Could’ being the operative word here. 5G is here – and shares of this ‘sleeping giant’ could be a great way for you to potentially profit!According to one leading industry firm, the 5G boom could create a global industry worth US$12.3 TRILLION out of thin air…And if you click here we’ll show you something that could be key to unlocking 5G’s full potential…Things are looking upWe don’t yet know how bad the economic damage will be once policy measures keeping many businesses afloat are withdrawn. We can take heart from the fact that so far the turnaround has been pretty sharp. UK’s GDP grew by 15.5% in the July-September quarter. While this was to be expected as the lockdown was lifted, I think it’s instructive to think counterfactually as well — what if GDP growth hadn’t bounced back? My point being, that so far the economy isn’t looking altogether bad even with risks ahead. Lloyds Bank’s third-quarter results aren’t disastrous either. Importantly, it’s still a profitable enterprise, not something that can be said for all companies hurt by Covid-19. The most recent example being easyJet, which just reported a loss. Taking potential for economic steadiness and its own performance into consideration, I think it’s quite possible that the Lloyds Bank share price will stay above 30p in the foreseeable future, barring any other untoward developments. The next big question for the Lloyds Bank share priceThe next, and possibly more important question, however, is this: Can it continue to rise much further from here? I think that’s unlikely. Even if the economy starts recovering in 2021, I expect that credit offtake will still be limited and bad debts are likely as a result of the challenges of 2020 as well. Both are bad news for the Lloyds Bank share price. In fact, even when the economy was relatively robust in recent years, the share price trend was weak. I don’t see any reason for high hopes now. But one particular situation, if it develops right, can be great news for Lloyds Bank. Before the end of 2020, the Bank of England (BoE) is expected to give a verdict on whether banks and insurance companies can pay dividends. If the BoE does greenlight them, the Lloyds Bank share price could rally. But I reckon that rally will be a short-term one. As a long-term investor, I think a high dividend yield is the best I can hope to get from the Lloyds Bank share. I’d wait for BoE’s call, and then make my decision accordingly. Renowned stock-picker Mark Rogers and his analyst team at The Motley Fool UK have named 6 shares that they believe UK investors should consider buying NOW.So if you’re looking for more stock ideas to try and best position your portfolio today, then it might be a good day for you. 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See all posts by Manika Premsingh Markets around the world are reeling from the coronavirus pandemic…And with so many great companies trading at what look to be ‘discount-bin’ prices, now could be the time for savvy investors to snap up some potential bargains.But whether you’re a newbie investor or a seasoned pro, deciding which stocks to add to your shopping list can be daunting prospect during such unprecedented times.Fortunately, The Motley Fool is here to help: our UK Chief Investment Officer and his analyst team have short-listed five companies that they believe STILL boast significant long-term growth prospects despite the global lock-down…You see, here at The Motley Fool we don’t believe “over-trading” is the right path to financial freedom in retirement; instead, we advocate buying and holding (for AT LEAST three to five years) 15 or more quality companies, with shareholder-focused management teams at the helm.That’s why we’re sharing the names of all five of these companies in a special investing report that you can download today for FREE. If you’re 50 or over, we believe these stocks could be a great fit for any well-diversified portfolio, and that you can consider building a position in all five right away. Click here to claim your free copy of this special investing report now! Can the Lloyds Bank share price stay above 30p? Here’s what I think
Rowland Phillips, now coaching at AironiWhen Rowland Phillips was still a player, he spoke to Rugby World about practical jokes, there being no life outside rugby and becoming the embarrassing uncle at weddings. Don’t be fooled by the picture, scroll down to see the joker at work. RUGBY WORLD: How did you celebrate Neath’s Welsh Premiership win?ROWLAND PHILLIPS: It was more subdued than you’d expect. We played our last league game the week before the final round of games, so Newport were still able to take the title with a 15-try win over Pontypridd. The weekend of that game we were having a memorial match for Brian Williams on the Sunday – I played in the same team as my son, Lloyd, 18, and we both scored tries – so the cup was presented there. Although it was a big ask for Newport to beat Ponty and score 15 tries, you haven’t won until you’ve won, so we had to wait until then to celebrate.RW: What’s the funniest thing you’ve seen or heard on the pitch?RP: I take my rugby very seriously –all my laughing is done off the pitch.RW: Any good practical jokes that you can share?RP: In New Zealand on the Welsh tour in 1988 I have to confess to persuading the hotel receptionist to put out a tannoy message calling for a ‘Don Kiddick’ to report to the foyer. She put out continuous requests for Don Kiddick for at least ten minutes, to the amusement of the rest of the squad.RW: What’s your nickname?RP: Rowly.RW: What would you like to achieve outside of rugby?RP: There’s life outside rugby?RW: What three things would you save if your house was burning down?RP: Both my children and my dog. If you give me the opportunity to save four things, then I’d take the TV. Five things, I’d add my wife to the list (only joking – probably the stereo).Michael Jackson, Little Red Riding Hood and Cuddly Toys…RW: What are your phobias?RP: Flying – because it tires my arms.RW: Do you have a karaoke song?RP: Anything by MozartRW: Breasts, bum or legs man?RP: I’ve got it all. I quite like my breasts. RW: If you could have one superpower what would it be?RP: To be able to predict the past.RW: What embarrasses you?RP: Having now turned into the embarrassing uncle at weddings (though I do a good Michael Jackson).RW: What are the best and worst headlines you’ve seen about yourself?RP: Worst – Something like ‘Wales tourist gets hotel receptionist sacked through childish Don Kiddick prank.’ Best – Wales tourist gets ‘Don Kiddick receptionist’ reinstated after mounting defence at appeal’.RW: What are your bugbears?RP: Are those cuddly toys?RW: Have you ever been starstruck?RP: No, but I imagine that would hurt.RW: What’s your favourite joke?RP: Little Red Riding Hood is skipping through the forest on her way to see her grandma when she sees a big bad wolf behind the bush. “What big eyes you’ve got, and what shiny teeth!” she says. The wolf looks at her and runs into the forest. She continues skipping through the forest and spots something behind a tree. Again, it’s the big bad wolf.“What big eyes you’ve got, and what shiny teeth!” she says. The wolf looks at her again and runs into the forest. She continues on her way and behind a rock something again catches her eye. It’s the big bad wolf again. “What big eyes you’ve got and what shiny teeth!” she says. The big bad wolf looks at her and says: “Do me a favour, go away, and let me have a s**t in peace!”RW: How do you stay entertained on long-haul flights?RP: I sing out loud. My favourite is 500 Million Green Bottles Sitting on a Wall.RW: Win the World Cup or £2m?RP: Win the World Cup – that would be priceless.Rowland now coaches Aironi rugby club in Italy. He obviously takes life seriously… (apologies for the spelling mistake) LATEST RUGBY WORLD MAGAZINE SUBSCRIPTION DEALS
TAGS: Harlequins Quins director of rugby Conor O’Shea believes that this game provided a prime example of the intensity needed in Europe’s premier club competition and thinks it will prove to be a good learning experience for his side.“The right side one,” said O’Shea. “It was incredibly physical, we couldn’t win the gain-line battle and we made a few mistakes. It was a very, very physical Toulouse side, they stopped us on the gain-line and we didn’t get the quick ball that we like. That’s what you have to learn at this level.“In games like that we need to be more accurate in what we do and find ways of being physical. They really attacked the breakdown with unbelievable ferocity – they came here with their game heads on and gave us the respect we deserved after winning 14 games in a row. LATEST RUGBY WORLD MAGAZINE SUBSCRIPTION DEALS Euro challenge: Mike Brown touches down for Harlequins – but he couldn’t prevent his side losing 21-10 to Toulouse By Sarah Mockford, Rugby World Features EditorHARLEQUINS’ 14-MATCH winning run had to come to an end at some point and there’s no shame in losing to Europe’s most successful professional side. The Londoners have dominated the Aviva Premiership all season but they could not get the better of the mighty Toulouse at the Stoop and failed to even collect a losing bonus point as they lost their Heineken Cup tie 21-10.Quins were outmuscled by a powerful Toulouse pack. The back row featured three France internationals – Yannick Nyanga, Thierry Dusautoir and Louis Picamoles, a real beast at No 8 – while any side that can leave William Servat on the bench clearly has impressive credentials.The Toulouse backs were just as intimidating, with Luke McAlister, Yannick Jauzion and Florian Fritz up quick in defence and knocking back their opponents. Quins missed their first-choice centre pairing of Jordan Turner-Hall and George Lowe, who both make their presence felt in defence as well as attack.Back-row beast: Powerhouse Louis PicamolesQuins’ cause wasn’t helped by George Clancy’s refereeing of the breakdown, but at this level teams need to adapt to the officials and play to the whistle – something that the home side took too long to do and Toulouse were able to take advantage when penalties were awarded.The battle at the breakdown meant Quins struggled to get the quick ball on which their attacking game thrives and when they did manage to string together phases, the next pass often went to ground or the ball was turned over. Toulouse on the other hand were clinical when given a sniff and Quins were fortunate to only concede two tries. “We have to get used to playing at this level and have to understand what’s needed when playing big games like this on a regular basis. We’re not a bad side now we’ve lost a game, just as we weren’t a great side when we were winning games.”The next test for this side is a trip to Toulouse on Sunday. So can they learn quickly enough from this first defeat of the season to turn things around in France eight days’ time?
“COPY” Architecture News “COPY” Farshid Moussavi Architecture Wins Jardins de la Lironde Competition ArchDaily ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/361789/farshid-moussavi-architecture-wins-jardins-de-la-lironde-competition Clipboard ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/361789/farshid-moussavi-architecture-wins-jardins-de-la-lironde-competition Clipboard Save this picture!© Farshid Moussavi ArchitectureWritten by Karissa RosenfieldApril 18, 2013 Share CopyAbout this authorKarissa RosenfieldAuthorFollow#TagsNewsArchitecture NewsResidential ArchitectureHousingApartmentsCompetitionsFarshid Moussavi ArchitectureHousingMontpellierFranceCite: Karissa Rosenfield. ” Farshid Moussavi Architecture Wins Jardins de la Lironde Competition” 18 Apr 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021.
Manufacturers: Rothoblaas, Mato Dentro, Soludimper Photographs: Federico Cairoli Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project Year: CopyAbout this officeArquipélago ArquitetosOfficeFollowProductsWoodBrick#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesRammed EarthCunhaResidential ArchitectureBrazilPublished on April 16, 2020Cite: “House in Cunha / Arquipélago Arquitetos” [Casa em Cunha / Arquipélago Arquitetos] 16 Apr 2020. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Jun 2021.
Advertisement Stand and deliver? AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. Is advertising on UK Fundraising effective? For the first time, UK Fundraising has published sample independent response rates from an advertiser. A recent banner ad by a recruitment company achieved an average click-through rate of 5.34% during the week from 20-26 November.Read the sample response rates on UK Fundraising. Howard Lake | 27 November 2000 | News 14 total views, 1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis
News Call for Iranian New Year pardons for Iran’s 21 imprisoned journalists IranMiddle East – North Africa News Receive email alerts Organisation IranMiddle East – North Africa Iran: Press freedom violations recounted in real time January 2020 September 26, 2003 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Kazemi murder enquiry farce continues as court says only one person responsible After Hengameh Shahidi’s pardon, RSF asks Supreme Leader to free all imprisoned journalists News Help by sharing this information March 18, 2021 Find out more to go further February 25, 2021 Find out more News Follow the news on Iran June 9, 2021 Find out more RSF_en Reporters Without Borders today deplored the conclusion of a judge investigating the murder of Canadian-Iranian journalist Zahra Kazemi that no state body was behind the killing and that it was simply the work of a single intelligence ministry agent who interrogated her. It repeated its call for an independent enquiry including international experts.The judge, Javad Esmaeli, attached to the office of the hardline Teheran prosecutor, Said Mortazavi, presented his report on 22 September, blaming the unnamed agent, who has been charged with her “semi-intentional” murder, implying that he hit Kazemi without intending to kill her.”We are very suspicious of this report, conducted under the authority of Judge Mortazavi, who has been implicated in this affair,” said Reporters Without Borders secretary-general Robert Ménard. “We hope that parliament’s Article 90 Committee (which investigates public complaints against government bodies) will publish its own conclusions without making any compromises.””What does the Esmaeli report mean? Kazemi was held for 77 hours, during which she passed from the prosecutor’s office, to the police and then the intelligence ministry. The commission of enquiry set up by reformist President Mohammad Khatami said she was “beaten” during the first few hours. How can Judge Esmaeli come to such a different conclusion? Why has only one person been charged? How did this person hit Kazemi without his superior knowing? How can no civilian or military official not have known she was beaten?” Ménard said.Canadian foreign minister Bill Graham met his Iranian counterpart, Kamal Kharrazi, on 23 September and was assured that Canadian officials and Kazemi’s family could take part in the trial, whose date has not been set. Reporters Without Borders hopes that neither the Iranian nor the Canadian government will accept Judge Esmaeli’s conclusions and that a thorough investigation will establish the identity of all those responsible for Kazemi’s death.The case has become a political football between the reformists around President Khatami and the hardliners led by the country’s Supreme Guide, Ali Khamenei, thus preventing a proper enquiry. The intelligence ministry, which is close to the reformists, reacted angrily to the charging of one of its officials and reiterated a threat to release evidence pointing a finger at Judge Mortazavi’s office. Kazemi, who lived in Canada, was arrested on 23 June this year as she took pictures of prisoners’ families in front of Teheran’s Evin prison. She died on 10 July from a brain haemorrhage caused by her beating in detention. After officials tried to cover up the cause of her death, Vice-President Ali Abtahi admitted on 16 July she had been beaten.Her body was hastily buried on 22 July despite the request of her mother, who lives in Iran, for the body to be repatriated to Canada. The request has since been repeated by Kazemi’s son and the Canadian authorities.
faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,Virtual Schools PasadenaHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyPasadena Public WorksPasadena Water and PowerPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes Pasadena’s ‘626 Day’ Aims to Celebrate City, Boost Local Economy EVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS Business News Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday As motorists take to the roads this Memorial Day holiday, Pasadena Police are urging everyone to buckle up. Pasadena law enforcement officials will be lending their support to the 2013 national Click It or Ticket seat belt law campaign and looking for motorists who are not belted.â€œAs we kick-off the busy summer driving season itâ€™s important that everyone buckles up every time they go out, both day and night â€“ no excuses,â€ said Chief Phillip Sanchez. â€œOur officers are prepared to ticket anyone who is not wearing their seat belt â€“ Click It or Ticket.â€According to the U.S. Department of Transportationâ€™s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), 52 percent of the 21,253 passenger vehicle occupants killed in 2011 were not wearing their seat belts at the time of the crash. Deaths involving seat belt non-use are more prevalent at night than during the daytime. According to NHTSA, 62 percent of the 10,135 passenger vehicle occupants killed in 2011 during the overnight hours were not wearing their seat belts at the time of the crash.â€œSeat belts save thousands of lives every year, but far too many motorists are still not buckling up, especially at night when the risk of getting in a crash is even greater,â€ said Christopher J. Murphy, Director of the California Office of Traffic Safety. â€œWe want everyone to have a safe summer, but it requires an important step on the part of motorists â€“ clicking that seat belt.â€In 2011, seat belts saved an estimated 11,949 lives nationwide according to NHTSA. While this yearâ€™s Click It or Ticket campaign runs from May 20 through June 2, officers are out enforcing seat belt laws year-round.For more on the national Click It or Ticket mobilization, please visit www.nhtsa.gov. Name (required) Mail (required) (not be published) Website Make a comment First Heatwave Expected Next Week Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * Top of the News Community News HerbeautyHe Is Totally In Love With You If He Does These 7 ThingsHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty8 Easy Exotic Meals Anyone Can MakeHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyNow She’s 19 – Look At Her Transformation! Incredible!HerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyNerdy Movie Kids Who Look Unrecognizable TodayHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyNutritional Strategies To Ease AnxietyHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyThe Most Heartwarming Moments Between Father And DaughterHerbeautyHerbeauty Subscribe More Cool Stuff Home of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadena Get our daily Pasadena newspaper in your email box. Free.Get all the latest Pasadena news, more than 10 fresh stories daily, 7 days a week at 7 a.m. Community News Government Click It or Ticket to Boost Seat Belt Use â€“ Day and Night Published on Tuesday, May 21, 2013 | 11:00 am 21 recommended0 commentsShareShareTweetSharePin it
LED (or light-emitting diode) lighting is transforming how we light our homes, workplaces and urban spaces. There is excitement it may help to create workplaces where we feel, and are, more productive. But there are also concerns it could affect our sleep patterns or, even more seriously, our health. Nic Paton attended a workshop that attempted to provide some answers.It’s probably safe to assume that the town of Silkeborg in Denmark is unlikely to be on the radar for most occupational health professionals. Located at the geographic centre of the country, it is home to some 45,000 Danes, boasts the world’s oldest steamboat in its harbour and is famous for its Silkeborg Langsø fountains, which are lit up each evening for tourists and visitors with colour-changing lights.And colour-changing lights – this time in its regional hospital – are the reason why the town is being featured in these pages. That is because the lighting at Silkeborg Regional Hospital was recently overhauled by a local lighting company to bring in innovative “human-centric” circadian lighting that is designed to adapt and change, brighten and dim, throughout the day.Key features include special coloured lighting in areas where employees are working on screens with test data and imagery (for example X-rays, ultrasounds, MRIs and CT scans) to enable them to read and interpret data more effectively than under traditional white strip lights.Around the hospital, staff can adjust or “tune” their lighting from central touchscreens, and there has even been careful thought given to the sort of lighting that is going to be most effective, and comfortable, for patients and staff in areas such as intensive care, wards and even operating theatres.This focus on the links between artificial LED (or light-emitting diode) lighting and our circadian rhythms is a seriously hot topic of discussion within the lighting industry right now, with projects such as Silkeborg Hospital becoming increasingly commonplace along with huge interest in the commercial potential of connected or “smart” cities and urban spaces. But you don’t have to Google too hard also to find research raising concerns around how the “blueness” of LED lighting could be affecting our sleep patterns or, even more seriously, heightening the risk of various cancers.Migraine and nauseaSimilarly, a quick (and admittedly unscientific) trawl through the Facebook UK Occupational Health Practitioners group finds advice being sought regularly by practitioners around whether the brightness, glare and/or flicker of LED lighting is potentially contributing to incidence of migraine or even nausea among workers.As one fairly typical question to the site put it back in 2017: “Has anyone had any experience of employees who are having significant problems with LED lighting in offices or other areas? A client of mine replaced all their office and laboratory lighting in their two premises at the end of 2016/early 17. The ‘colour temperature’, as it is known, is very different. Very WHITE!… One male employee is really struggling with headaches, leading to migraines, nausea and lots of time off… There are lots of grumbles from other staff also.”So, what is going on here? Is the new LED lighting that in recent years has transformed how we light our homes, workplaces and urban spaces good or bad for our health? Or potentially both? What even actually is “human-centric” circadian lighting? And could a better understanding of the links between light, lighting and our circadian rhythms lead both to better workplaces and better ways of working, especially in areas such as shift or night working?In an attempt to answer, or at least try to address, some of these questions, a workshop was held in October by ergonomic furniture and accessories companies Wellworking and Bakker Elkhuizen. The event also discussed how workplace design and environment can influence and support cognitive performance.The discussion around light and lighting was led by Steve Edwards, outdoor application product manager for urban and architecture lighting at lighting company Zumtobel. Edwards first highlighted the fact that, for most organisations, their biggest fixed cost is their people, much more so than even the swankiest modern building. In fact, people make up about 90% of the investment cost put into a business, compared with 9.9% for a building and 0.05% for both lighting and energy respectively.“So, if you want to create a successful building, if you invest a little bit more money on top of that very small amount of money you will improve the working environment for your most expensive investment, your people. In the end, there are only three things generally that people are unhappy with about their offices: the air, the furniture or chairs, or the light. Those three things, practically, you can do something about,” he pointed out.He then explained, in broad terms, what LED lighting is. “LED is a technology based on the semi-conductor industry. And this has been a revolution for the lighting industry for the last 15 years. It’s made everything totally different for us. We used to make luminaires, somebody else made a lamp [bulb], somebody else put the lamp inside the fixture. And that was it. And every so often you’d take the lamp out and put a new one in.“Now, basically, we put an LED light in the ceiling and then the customer really doesn’t need to look at it for 10-15 years. LEDs are evolving and getting better and better, even though there were issues with projects in the past.”Cool and warm LED lightBy “issues”, Edwards was alluding to the “blueness” of LED. LED predominantly emits a light at the blue end of the colour spectrum but, when you put a phosphor cover over it, this turns into a white light (even if the blue light being emitted has only been masked). As a result, early LED lights tended to be notable for their “coldness” – the light emitted often felt much harsher and “bluer” than we were used to from more conventional halogen, incandescent or metal halide lighting, which tends to have a softer, yellower feel.Many of these technical issues have now been ironed out and, while you can buy “cool” (often branded “daylight”) LED bulbs, for most of us the difference in terms of perception between the old and new lighting is negligible. But the arrival of LED has nevertheless thrown a spotlight on this colour spectrum debate within lighting and, from there, the effect and influence this potentially has on our body clocks, especially the role and use of such artificial light at night.As Edwards pointed out, even though moonlight is very blue, as humans we evolved predominantly under yellow light. “We all sat in front of a fireplace, that was how we understood what light was, and it was also based on the light quality from the sun.”One of the innovations of LED, as we see in the hospital in Silkeborg, is that it is “tuneable”; in other words it can be changed and adjusted throughout the day to mimic how daylight naturally changes – and this primarily is what we mean by “human-centric” lighting.As Edwards explained: “At certain times of day, the brightness of daylight increases and decreases; also the colour temperature of natural light changes. For example, you get a nice red sunset, in the middle of the day it’s much brighter – and whiter – and in the morning when the sun is coming up, because of the way the sun refracts through the atmosphere, it changes in colour. We evolved as a species in an environment where the light changes all the time.“Yet now we spend all of our time in an environment where the light changes really hardly anything at all. And this is one of the things that could be a problem because of the melatonin that we need. Melatonin is a suppressant and when that comes into your body it depresses another hormone that keeps you awake; melatonin is what makes you start to feel tired.“The production of melatonin is linked to daylight. If you have blue light at night, for example when you look at your phone this has become an issue, it can affect the way you sleep because it is such a huge blast of the blue end of the spectrum, which is the one that your brainwave doesn’t need to have late at night because it suppresses the melatonin. The way the LED is in your phone, the blue light output is very strong. So, we should all switch our phones off earlier in the evening and not look at them,” he said.Edwards highlighted research Zumtobel carried out with software developer the Fraunhofer Institute in 2014, polling some 2,000 people about the role and extent of light used in the office spaces in which they worked. Perhaps unsurprisingly, more artificial light was used in winter than summer, with 72% saying their artificial lighting was kept switched on for more than six hours a day during this period. But a third said this was also the case even in spring or summer.“The thing about artificial light is that it is really in the office space all the time, even in the summertime the percentage of artificially lit space is very high and of course in winter it is higher still. So really there is no other way of getting around it apart from using the technology that we have available now with LEDs to tune lighting within the office space,” said Edwards.“With LED, we can change the amount of light there is in the space throughout the day, and also the colour temperature of that light. So, in the morning you have increasing light and as you head in toward the evening the lighting level goes down.“In amongst this, we are changing not only the intensity of the light but also the amount of colour in that light. You can have a nice warm burst in the morning, and then as you head into the mid-morning it turns into a cooler colour, moving between 3000K [kelvin – a temperature measurement of light] and 5000K, which is quite big change. Then over lunchtime, about 1pm, you get this dip. We all experience it. You can suppress that [through light], again it is all about the production of melatonin and when it kicks in at different times.“It is not about programming people to stay awake; it is more to do with the physiology of who we came from. We’re not really used to sitting in office spaces day in and day out. So the idea is we’re trying to stimulate the brain at certain times of the day by introducing some pretty-much random but perceptible changes to the colour and intensity of the light in the space. And then as you’re heading towards the evening it is nice to get a warmer light, or sometimes cooler light but just less of it,” Edwards said.Links between light and circadian rhythmsThis, in turn, leads into quite complex discussions around how light – daylight or artificial – affects our circadian rhythms. For example, there was the ground-breaking discovery in the 1990s of a previously unknown third “photoreceptor” in the eye – known as the intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Receptor (ipRGC) – responsible for melatonin release from the pineal gland, and which has been discovered to be a key influencer on our body clocks.The challenge, however, for both healthcare and lighting professionals is that, while our knowledge is advancing all the time, this is an area of science and research that is still evolving.On blue light, for example, there is a growing body of research and, as Steve Edwards made clear, genuine concern. But, how much should we be worried? To what extent does the amount of blue light emitted from our devices, or even lights out in the street, really affect our production of melatonin? Or, in the case of blue light from devices, is it more the cognitive stimulation of the content we’re looking at (especially if it is, say, work emails or something on social media) that is the issue? After all, as already highlighted, the much more extensive blue light from moonlight has been with us for centuries, even if of course it is much further away and diffuse.Similarly, while there is ongoing research into why shift or night work should be so closely associated with so many negative health outcomes (notably various forms of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, stomach problems and mental ill health) it is far from clear what the risk factors actually are here. Is it to do with people being pumped full or artificial blue light overnight? Or is it more down to fluctuating shift patterns, a lack of good-quality sleep, less access to healthy food, less access to daylight generally, reduced opportunities for exercise and so on? Or a combination of all of the above? The jury is still out.Finally, what about the concerns raised at the beginning of this article by OH professionals around flicker and glare/migraine and nausea and these new forms of lighting? Precisely this question was put to Steve Edwards as the workshop came a conclusion. Is this an issue with LED and, if so, how can you adjust or change the lighting to accommodate for this?Because of the way they’re constructed, if anything LEDs should be creating less flicker than old-fashioned lighting, argued Edwards. “But I totally agree that, when it comes to LEDs, the issue can be that they are incredibly bright. If you have a single-point source, that light needs to be controlled; that’s why people often prefer having indirect light – because you can spread a lot of the light across a very large surface, which reduces the intensity on any particular surface within the space.“Of course, some people just don’t like artificial light; that is just a physiological thing. I think that, if that person had any chance of having a more comfortable experience in the office, if they were able to choose the tune light down to an acceptable level, that would be preferable for them,” he said.Does any of this provide a definitive answer for occupational health professionals about the impact – both positive and negative – of these new forms of artificial lighting and their influence on health and wellbeing? Probably not.What it does make clear, however, is that there is an important, and ongoing, debate to be had to help employers better recognise and understand the links between working environment (including lighting) and health and wellbeing. It is also clear these new technologies may be able to create working environments that are more accommodating, comfortable and intuitive to work within (such as at Silkeborg Hospital), so enhancing our wellbeing and, potentially, our productivity too.Yet, at the same time, we need to recognise there is much we still don’t fully understand about the potential consequences the artificial working world we have created, and which we all spend so much time within, has on our bodies, on our health, and on our wellbeing.As well as being editor of Occupational Health & Wellbeing, Nic Paton is editor of Lighting Journal, the CPD members’ magazine for the Institution of Lighting ProfessionalsReferences‘Study links night exposure to blue light with breast and prostate cancer’, EurekaAlert!, 25 April, 2018, available online at https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-04/bifg-sln042518.php‘New LED streetlights may double cancer risk, new research warns’, The Daily Telegraph, 26 April, 2018, available online at https://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2018/04/26/new-led-streetlights-may-double-cancer-risk-new-research-warns/‘Blue light has a dark side’, Harvard Health Publishing, 13 August 2018, available online at https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/blue-light-has-a-dark-sideFoster, R G. ‘The “Third” Photoreceptor System of the Eye – Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells’. European Ophthalmic Review, 2009,2(1):84-6 DOI: http://doi.org/10.17925/EOR.2009.02.01.84, available online at https://www.touchophthalmology.com/articles/third-photoreceptor-system-eye-photosensitive-retinal-ganglion-cells‘Body language’ – an abridged version of a lecture by Professor Russell Foster, professor of circadian neuroscience and head of the Department of Ophthalmology at Oxford University, to the Institution of Lighting Professionals to coincide with the International Year of Light. Lighting Journal, vol 80, no 9, October 2015‘Health care: how a Danish lighting company is creating innovative, tuneable hospital and care home lighting schemes’, Lighting Journal., vol 83, no 9, October 2018 Light and Shift Work, Lighting Research Center, available online at https://www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/lightHealth/shiftwork.aspLighting quality perceived in offices, Zumtobel Research/Fraunhofer Institute, 2014The Health Risks of Shift Work, WebMD, available online at https://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/features/shift-work# One-fifth do not train line managers in health and safetyOne in five organisations do not train their managers in health and safety, despite the view that they are often… Related posts: No comments yet. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.Comment Name (required) Email (will not be published) (required) Website Illuminating the links between LED lighting, health and productivityBy Nic Paton on 5 Apr 2019 in Cancer, Sickness absence management, Occupational Health, Personnel Today, Productivity Previous Article Next Article